When preparing the work, the student must necessarily use the materials of reputable scientists. The correct design of references in the thesis is a completely justified requirement. The graduate faces not a simple, but a real task. The skills of working in the Word text program, the sequence of actions, and attention – all this will help to formalize links and footnotes in the diploma without a hitch. If you don’t have time to figure out how to quote books, you can check out en.writingapaper.net to get your essay done in hours. The service connects qualified writers with students to improve their academic performance without extra fuss.
How to make references and footnotes in the Final Thesis Project?
References and footnotes: what is the difference?
A footnote is an additional text that is placed at the very bottom of the page under the main text block and separated from the latter by a line. A footnote may contain a note to the main content, a translation, a bibliographic reference, etc.
How to make references and footnotes in the thesis report or essay?
A bibliographic reference is any bibliographic data (the author, when the source came out, the title) about the cited material, which is considered or mentioned in the diploma.
The relationship between a bibliographic reference and a footnote is simple: A footnote is an area at the bottom of the page where a bibliographic reference can be placed.
Types of bibliographic references that the thesis contains
There are three methods of placing references in the “body” of the thesis project:
An in-text link. It is logical to assume that this kind of link is located inside the text using parentheses.
Subscript link. Everything is also clear with it: an index is placed after the main text and the source is written at the bottom of the sheet.
How to make references and footnotes in the Final Thesis Report?
A non-text link. In this case, square brackets are placed behind the borrowed text and the ordinal number of the source from the list of references and the number of the page on which this text is written are written.
Attention! There is another type of link – a complex link, which rarely takes place in a graduation project, but still needs to be mentioned. They include not one, but several bibliographic sources. In this case, bibliographic references are separated by a semicolon (with spaces before and after the prescribed icon) and arranged in chronological or alphabetical order.
Registration of references in the thesis report
Links to the sites from which the information for the diploma is taken are traditionally drawn up:
the bibliographic list includes the author, the title of the work, and the e-mail address of the site;
the in-text format of the link is made using square brackets (after the text fragment), indicating only the number of the source in the “list of references” (without specifying pages).
How to make references in a thesis when using quotes?
- There are the following generally accepted standards for the design of the cited sites:
- words taken from the source in the original form are enclosed in quotation marks, then a link to the source is indicated;
- if the author’s statement is transmitted through indirect speech, the statement is not enclosed in quotation marks, but a reference to the original source is indicated.
Before you start quoting, you should indicate which of the famous people or author personalities spoke in this way. For these purposes, introductory constructions are used, for example:
- based on that I conclude;
- as I thought;
- as claimed.
At the same time, it is necessary to indicate the gender of the person to whom the statement belongs, indicating his initials and surname.
How to make references in theses to the appendices?
The name of the author, the page in the source that is used to compose the text or the volume of the working material are written in the body of the link behind the explained concept. Sometimes the name of the source (or several), the date of publication, volume, and the range of pages that are considered key is added in square brackets.
For example: “The interpretation of the term “abbreviation” can be read in Dahl’s explanatory dictionary .
If a student is not going to quote from a source that he uses when writing content, he will have to start with an introductory construction like “Cit. By…”. Then the source of the information is given in the bibliographic reference.
It is also allowed to issue a link in the report with the use of parentheses, in which all information is indicated without reorientation to the source. In this case, the author of the source, name, type, and publishing year are prescribed.
Not all students understand how to make references to appendices in the graduation project. In this case, the algorithm for the design of links of the traditional type is preserved. It remains to enclose the word “Appendix” in square brackets and assign it a number, under which it will be given after the “body” text.
Attention! The student should include in the content of the project a link to a page with bibliographic explanations and separately issue a link to the literature in the diploma.
How to make footnotes in a diploma in a Word text editor?
Usually, the design of in-text and out-of-text links in Word does not cause difficulties.
Subscript references are advised to formalize in the following way:
In the toolbar, select the “Insert” window, then “link-footnote”. At the next stage, the format is chosen – in our case, it is “numbering on each sheet”. After that, the footnote in the thesis throughout the text will be placed just on the sheet on which the quote is placed. As you can see, it is very difficult to arrange footnotes in this way.
Basic rules for the design of references and footnotes
Concluding the urgent topic, we will give a few “golden” rules for the design of footnotes and links in the graduation project, which the graduate should use:
Each passable is numbered. If the work is to be formatted in Word, the number is assigned to the footnote automatically and put in the left corner of the first written character.
Numbering can be of two types – through and page-by-page. In the first case, the footnotes are numbered throughout the work, in the second – on a separate sheet. How exactly to number footnotes does not matter, unless it is strictly prescribed in the requirements of the university.
If the “body” of the footnote has already been repeated earlier on the page, you can indicate a link to the previous one in the footnote.
Footnotes are made out in 10-12 font, Times New Roman;
The footnote symbol, which refers to the footnote itself, is placed without a space after the word to which the footnote belongs.
The number of allowed footnotes and, accordingly, footnotes icons are unlimited.
It is convenient to make footnotes immediately in the course of writing the work, so do not be lazy – it is better to familiarize yourself and remember important nuances before writing a project. This also applies to the ways of placing references in the text. If you still struggle with source referencing, you can contact the best essay writing services online.